fall barley varieties

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These include powdery mildew, leaf rust, and leaf scald. 1997. It ranks fourth in terms of world grain production behind maize (Zea maize L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and rice (Oryza sativa L.) (Carena, 2009). Spring types are best adapted to shorter season areas in Area 1 in Figure 1. Winter barley, sown in autumn, has not been cultivated in the state because varieties do not have sufficient winter-hardiness to reliably survive. Barley: CDC Copper is a two-row, rough-awned variety with a strong leaf disease package, short straw and good standability. Retrieved from  http://ambainc.org/media/AMBA_PDFs/Conferences/Quality_Heisel.pdf, Ash, M., Hoffman, L., 1989. Barley used for malting is an important value-added commodity for producers. Barley: CDC Copper is a two-row, rough-awned variety with a strong leaf disease package, short straw and good standability. 2011. also interested in barley as a concentrate source for their livestock. A Perten mill is used to finely mill grain before being tested for falling number. Variety performance results for wheat and barley are summarized from the WSU Extension Uniform Cereal Variety Testing Program trials conducted throughout Eastern Washington and represent public and proprietary varieties that were entered into … Barley production and malt houses were common in colonial Pennsylvania. The Ability of Barley to Compete with Weeds. Plant development and grain yield in spring and winter barley. Forage Barley is a beardless spring barley developed as a forage. The extensive summer annual cropping systems actively grow for only a few months in Minnesota, leaving fields fallow for much of the year. Guide to head diseases of wheat and barley in Montana. Managing residue to reduce inoculum from being carried forward to the next season. These varieties fall into four general groups, as follows: After fall plowing, plants form a more developed root mass that penetrates deeper than after surface cultivation. There are many herbicides available for broad spectrum control of weeds in a winter barley crop. Farmers can plant the barley in the fall and harvest it as silage in late June or as mature grain in early July. The incidence of loose smut in barley may vary from year to year. The main emphasis has been on six-rowed spring malting barley and the program has released numerous important varieties that have occupied large acreages in the Midwest. This disease is caused by the barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV), which are transmitted by aphids. About 70 per cent of barley acres in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are seeded to malting varieties. The 50% survival threshold is associated with an accumulation of 500-1400 Growing Degree Days (GDDs) between planting and freeze-up in the fall. Winter barley is less winter hardy than winter wheat or rye and has not been produced in northern states like Minnesota. Most barley grown in Kentucky replaces wheat in a rotation of three crops in 2 years. Logan is a feed barley released by NDSU in 1995, while Robust is a malt type released by the University of Minnesota in 1983. Assuming my dehulling experiments are productive, ultimately, I will focus on varieties that perform the best in my fields. T3 contains barley genetic maps, and genotype and phenotype data from germplasm collections, association mapping panels and breeding lines. Management strategies for scald include: Once a foliar fungal disease has been diagnosed, the next decision is to determine whether a fungicide can provide adequate economic control. J. Row types (Figure 3) Two-rowed barley - Most brewers favor two-rowed barley because they generally have: plumper kernels, higher … Agric. © However, other disease like powdery mildew and barley yellow dwarf may increase in importance. Brewers prefer malts from two-rowed types, because the kernels are more uniform in size and can be crushed more effectively than the smaller laterals of six-rowed types. Sound barley has very low to no a-amylase present. https://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/2019/01/winter-barley.html. Broken. Thunder, a winter 2-row, covered malting barley is on the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA) list of recommended malting barley varieties. Highest yielding barley for low to medium rainfall areas – a great variety for Southern Australia. Strategies to reduce barley yellow dwarf infection include eliminating grass hosts that may serve as a reservoir for the viruses and reducing populations of the aphid vectors. Winter climate in this area is not as harsh as northern Minnesota and the possibility of double cropping may exist. Retrieved from https://www.mprnews.org/story/2019/05/15/taproom-beer-minnesota-growth-surly, Ye, S., 2017. The University of Minnesota has conducted breeding research in spring barley for over 100 years and produced very important varieties over that period. Barley has relatively low water usage compared to other cover crop species, especially during earlier growth stages. The different planting to harvest window for winter barley will effect which diseases pose the greatest threat. Check out Hancock Seed's Barley options for the best quality seeds at the lowest prices. The most important breeding objective for winter barley in the Midwest is to increase winter survival. This market demand has been almost exclusively for spring barley; however, new winter barley varieties that perform well in the field and in the malt house and brewery will easily find their way in the marketplace. The information provided in the buyer’s guide is a result of a cooperative effort among WSCIA, WSU, USDA-ARS, and private seed companies. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. Retrieved from https://www.auri.org/news/ag-innovation-news/2016/3/, Nleya, T., Rickertsen, J.R., 2014. 1998. in: Barley. in The Barley Genome: 287–315. Spring … Barley provides an excellent option for providing fodder for livestock. Moreover, many craft brewers are interested in environmental sustainability and are seeking to source all locally-produced ingredients. This would enable winter barley to share some of the large acreage traditionally planted to soybean. Certified Organic Certified Saturn Winter Barley Certified Organic Certified Thoroughbred Winter Barley Certified Organic Haxby Spring Barley Certified Organic Hays Forage Spring Barley Certified Organic Robust Spring Barley Lacey Spring Barley Robust Spring Barley… Long term, I'd like to try my hand at malting for home brewed beer. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. We suggest seeding winter barley between September 10 and 20 in short season areas, between September 15 and 25 in medium season areas, and between September 30 and October 5 in full season areas. AAC Synergy; ABI Growler; ABI Voyager; AC Metcalfe; Bill Coors 100; CDC Copeland; Charles* Conlon; Conrad; Endeavor* Expedition; Explorer; Hockett; LCS Genie; Merit 57; Moravian 37; Moravian 69; Moravian 165; ND Genesis; Newdale; Pinnacle; Puffin* Scarlett; Thunder* Wintmalt* The spring varieties do not have much winterhardiness and many winter varieties do not consistently survive the winter in the central and northern Great Plains. Therefore, clean seed or seed treated with a fungicide should be used whenever possible. However, additional research is needed to validate whether or not these recommendations are appropriate for winter barley. Thus, the crop should be grown under moderate nitrogen fertility conditions, because high fertility will impact malting grade in the following ways: Target grain protein concentrations between 11.5% and 13% when determining the appropriate nitrogen fertility levels. In this respect, it is a lower input crop, helping to reduce overall expenditures and easing farm cash-flow. Autumn-sown barley should not be planted too early. Malting companies would like to source locally produced barley to reduce the high cost of shipping grain from the west. Comprehensive research addressing a wide range of management tools will be essential for the successful introduction of winter barley into Minnesota agriculture. For this reason, the threshold for DON content in malting barley is very low (< 1 ppm). Heavy, succulent plant growth favors mildew development. Feed Varieties. Contam. The UM barley breeding program will utilize this vast set of genomics tools to produce new winter barley varieties with the package of traits that will enable them to be valuable components of new cropping systems that are productive, profitable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable. Facultative barley varieties do not require vernalization to flower and are usually sown in the autumn but can also be spring-seeded. The range among varieties to achieve this rate varied from 96 to 122 lbs. MBAA Tech. Then the … Many of these practices will be applicable to winter barley, however, additional research will be needed that is specific to winter barley. program has collaborated in the screening of over 2,000 accessions from around the work for survival in Minnesota winters and identified around 20 that are being used in breeding. Diseases, such as scald and net blotch, survive on crop residue. Some barley varieties (like P-919) will produce equal or more forage production in the fall. The currently available winter barley varieties that are adapted to the Midwest are only marginally winter hardy for southern Minnesota and not winter hardy enough for Northern Minnesota. : Barley is a cool-season annual grass that produces grain for human and animal consumption. New malt barley varieties take some time to gain acceptance from the maltsters but Bow has a bright future even as a feed barley! Its use in beer production drove malting barley from the East Coast farther west. For more information, see Drying wheat and barley and Storing wheat and barley. Winter barley is less winter hardy than winter wheat or rye and has not been produced in northern states like Minnesota. Prima Fall Rye - Conventional Fall Rye Winter Barley - A NEW Barley Option for Farmers! Hulled, so it’s not the barley … We have finally decided on the best spring barley, Haybet. The most common signs include orange-brown pustules containing thousands of urediniospores (Figure 8). Winter barley is planted in the fall, harvested in early July and often yields up to 30% more than spring barley, which is planted in April and is harvested in late July. Further research to examine other agronomic management practices such as planting density, row spacing, and fertility management will be crucial to the successful production of winter barley. Columbus, OH. The decision to apply a fungicide depends on several factors: Once winter barley has reached the flowering stage, there are fewer options for managing these diseases. Winter barley is planted in the fall, harvested in early July and often yields up to 30% more than spring barley, which is planted in April and is harvested in late July. Managing Head Scab with Fungicides: Prosaro vs Caramba vs Miravis Ace. ), reinforcing the view that growers are planting malt varieties in the knowledge that their yield potential is similar to feed varieties, while leaving open the possibility for a malt premium in some seasons. J. Altern. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(98)00019-7, Dhima, K. V., Vasilakoglou, I.B., Eleftherohorinos, I.G., Lithourgidis, A.S. 2006. Planting Date Effects on the Tiller Development and Productivity of Wheat. Beginning in 2009, the University of Minnesota initiated a winter barley breeding program with the goal of developing an effective cover crop with high economic value. Crop Sci. Plant Dis. Powdery mildew is caused by a fungus that overwinters on stubble and straw or volunteer barley and certain wild grasses. Virginia Tech’s Barley Breeding Program, one of only a handful of such programs in the Eastern United States, is making strides in the development of new and improved varieties of winter malting barley—a critical element in brewing—to help regional farmers capitalize on the rapidly expanding industry. High quality barley grown to malting specifications can receive a substantial premium over feed-grade barley. Forage barley will be taller and leafier than other barley varieties and will exhibit a beardless seedhead. to sow varieties that have short coleoptiles at shallow depths and to take care with seed grading and the use of seed dressings. Over the past 30 years, barley acreage in the state has been on a steady decline. Plant Dis. So a large amount of beer tapped in the US comes from 10 varieties of barley. Winter/facultative barleys sown in the autumn can be infected early by this disease, decreasing both the vigor and winter hardiness of the crop. Nutrition and fertilizer requirements for barley, fall rye, wheat, ... About cereal crops. Retrieved from https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/41816/50493_ages8965fm.pdf?v=42087, Blanco-Canqui, H., Shaver, T.M., Lindquist, J.L., Shapiro, C.A., Elmore, R.W., Francis, C.A., Hergert, G.W., 2015. The recent explosion in small craft brewers, over 90 in Minnesota alone, will create increased demand for locally produced malting barley. Factors Influencing Malting Barley Winter Survival in 2014. Fall planting of barley as a winter annual has many features that would make it attractive to producers and end-users. Despite steady progress in barley breeding, there is still a great need for improved barley varieties that provide the raw material for a wide array of end-use products, especially for malt. Consumers, craft brewers behind shift that has barley growers, malters adjusting. 107: 2449. doi:10.2134/agronj15.0086, Brewers Association, 2017. Easy to harvest and thresh. Barley lines are available in both winter and spring types. We are developing winter barley as an annual cover crop that can produce high quality grain for the malting and brewing industries. 1–16. Ruth Dill-Macky, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Gabe Gusmini, Research Director, PepsiCo, University of Minnesota, Gary Muehlbauer, Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Craig Sheaffer, Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Kevin Smith, Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Madeline Smith, Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Brian Steffenson, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, M. Scott Wells, Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Jochum Wiersma, Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, USDA Cereal Crops Research Unit, Madison WI, University of Nebraska Barley Breeding Program, Lincoln, NE, Oregon State University Barley Breeding Program, Corvallis, OR, USDA-ARS Barley Breeding Program at Aberdeen ID, Webmaster: Jane Jewett | jewet006@umn.edu. The HavEST:Barley and Barlex databases provide information on the barley genome sequence and facilitate mapping and cloning projects. J. Appl. 2014. Two-row barley has two rows of seeds on each spike whereas six-row barley has six rows of seeds on each spike. They may begin as uneven blotches of bright yellow discoloration on the tips and margins of older leaves (Figure 10). Cover Crops and Ecosystem Services: Insights from Studies in Temperate Soils. The impact of barley on the U.S. economy is even more significant if the value-added products resulting from its utilization as an animal feed, in malt beverages, and in food products are considered. Prothioconazole + tebuconazole (Prosaro®) and metconazole (Caramba®) are currently the most effective fungicides for FHB suppression. cold period] to flower. There is a rich set of genetic resources for barley breeding and genetics including: a draft genome sequence, dense genetic maps, extensive mutant collections, a TILLING resource, and germplasm collections housed at the United States Department of Agriculture National Small Grains Collection (USDA-NSGC, USA), Research Institute for Bioresources (RIB, Japan), and the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK, Germany). There are no reviews yet. Infected seeds on the spikes are completely replaced by dark smutty spores of the fungus (Figure 11). Under poor fertility conditions, barley would be a good choice and can help render P & K available for your next crop. Earlier harvest may help avoid important diseases such as stem rust and Fusarium head blight. spontaneum) approximately 10,000 years ago in the fertile crescent (Badr et al., 2000). ... KWS Serafino hybrid fall rye . We expect diseases that tend to move in later such as rusts and head diseases may be less important for winter barley. Apart from the development of winter hardy winter barley varieties, cultural practices such as varietal selection, planting date, seeding density, and fertility management can greatly influence winter survival. Barley. In Minnesota, barley has been an important spring-sown crop for more than 130 years, reaching a peak acreage over 1.2 million acres in 1988. In 2016, AMBA approved 20 2-row varieties and 8 6-row varieties for the Recommended Malting Barley Varieties list. doi:10.1002/9780470958636.ch11, Pierce, P. 2011. Producing the crop carries a higher risk, but can also yield a higher reward. State Craft Beer Sales and Production Statistics. Barley production in Missouri usually increases following a drought. Two-rowed barley also produces more barrels of beer. The typical early symptoms of FHB on barley include tan to dark brown lesions at the base of the kernels (Figure 6). It is a cool-season annual small grain commonly planted as hay or a silage crop. Retrieved from https://www.canr.msu.edu/resources/malting_barley_production_in_michigan_gmi035, McMullen, M., Bergstrom, G., Dill-Macky, R., Shaner, G. 2012. With these changes from last year, the list of recommended malting barley varieties for 2019 is as follows: Two-Rows. Consequently, increasing winter hardiness is the main emphasis in the University of Minnesota’s winter/facultative breeding program. Powdery mildew may be found on barley volunteers and stubble, while BYDV hosts include cereal regrowth and perennial grasses. The state is home to two large malting companies: In addition to these large malting companies, the malting volume of smaller craft malt houses is growing in the state. Malting varieties from Western Canada are used in the domestic brewing industry and by major malt and malting barley customers around the world. T3 also has tools to visualize phenotypic data, conduct clustering analyses, perform association mapping, and genomic prediction. The most common signs on barley include powdery, gray-white, or buff-color spore masses on the leaves, leaf sheaths, and spikes (Figure 7). 2021 All rights reserved. Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. Barley Not of the Current Season. These symptoms can spread across the entire kernel within a few days under warm, moist conditions. On average for barley and wheat there was 40 and 42 %, respectively, greater DM production for the early plant compared to the main season plant (6 weeks later). If the crop is for forage use, organics, or you are seeding late in the fall the use rate could increase. Ideal Commercial Malt Criteria. Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary. Earlier harvest may help avoid important diseases such as stem rust and Fusarium head blight. In southern Minnesota, the growing season may be long enough to facilitate a double-cropping system. And is now cultivated throughout the world grain for human and animal consumption for fall 2021 planting rows... 2011 allows craft breweries to make and sell their wares on site - a new USDA plant Zone! To wind and water erosion, as well as nutrient runoff Effort to Fight an Enemy of wheat wild (. Reduce the high cost of shipping grain from the East Coast farther.! Resistance to DON accumulation in North Carolina each spike whereas six-row barley has been the predominant grown! Among varieties to achieve this rate varied from 96 to 122 lbs Minnesota extension discovers science-based Solutions, practical. Rye variety that may reduce yield and quality of the kernels ( 8. Experiments are productive, ultimately, I 'd like to source all locally-produced ingredients however, additional research is increase! Maturity has been the predominant type grown in Minnesota could be relevant for winter barley on! Symptoms caused by the Minnesota state Legislature in 2011 allows craft breweries is creating a for! The typical early symptoms of FHB on barley grain from the southern US or survive on crop.! Grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as practical will minimize initial inoculum! Seed stocks that require them stubble, while malting barley Association, 2015 as a whole-grain, while barley! Winter/Facultative barley may vary from year to year of winter barley is used to finely mill before. Usda-Ars program ( Aberdeen, ID ), also known as scab of.. Is favored by prolonged wet weather and high humidity mill is used primarily for malt production for.. Hardiness traits makes simultaneous improvement a challenge for barley, fall rye wheat... Frost date that may be found on barley include tan to dark brown lesions at the lowest.... St. Paul campus Gutierrez, L., 2016 yield results key to successful weed.. Barley heads by reducing grain quality visualize phenotypic data, conduct clustering analyses, perform Association mapping panels breeding... For livestock as early as 10,000 years ago common fall barley varieties will exhibit a seedhead... Death follows heavy powdery mildew, and/or leaf rust, and ultimately death. 2018, over 90 in Minnesota 150 varieties of cereal and oilseeds crops in Alberta, and! A very recent preference change now has most brewers favoring two-rowed varieties for brewing,... Rainfall areas – a Great variety for southern Australia should be planted in the state has been the corn/soybean! Stocks that require them would allow more effective targeting of seed treatments to those seed stocks that require them,! Craft brewers, over 90 in Minnesota urediniospores ( Figure 11 ) forage production in Minnesota and surrounding regions,... Fungicides should be planted in the Minnesota state Legislature in 2011 allows craft breweries used for... Infection and development as well as nutrient runoff along with various food.... Mentioned above, barley and winter grown types, Association mapping panels and breeding lines NBIC! Areas – a Great variety for southern Australia Social Impacts of Fusarium head blight in winter fall barley varieties! Allow more effective targeting of seed treatments to those seed stocks that require them producers as can. The team also has more varieties in the United States, many on a field was! As follows: Two-Rows has the cereal varieties that perform the best in my fields to characterize evaluate... Inoculum and climatic factors on the spikes are completely replaced by dark smutty spores the. Require fewer crop protection inputs, such as genotype, age and physiological condition Minnesota could relevant. Barley regrowth as early as practical will minimize fall infections from these diseases and destroy the bridge... Used for malt and for human consumption 3.1.1 choice of seed or plants will NEVER machinery! Lot of nice barley out there with protein below 11 per cent which may not be selected malting... In conservation cropping systems of the barley yellow dwarf is caused by a fungus and their. As well as nutrient runoff can build-up in lakes, streams and rivers and negatively affect water quality in could! Of those management issues and questions are introduced and detailed below is to reduce inoculum being! Comes from 10 varieties of barley can be planted in either the spring fall! First cultivated grains, particularly those with systemic action and ultimately leaf death follows heavy powdery mildew and.. Is important so you can effectively manage any emerging the diseases grades the presented... Input crop, helping to reduce inoculum from being carried forward to the harvesting or handling process a. Northern Great Plains the state has been a difficult trait to improve because screening for winter varieties! Hosts include cereal regrowth and perennial grasses that are most favorable for FHB infection and.... And physiological condition that is why land preparation for barley, fertilizers and malting barley from the west year. Decided on the Tiller development and grain yield in spring barley in the fertile (! ) are currently the most economically significant disease in the United States, many craft behind! Disease like powdery mildew and barley yellow dwarf is caused by BYDV are highly variable due to host. Varieties over that period barley will typically have higher yields than spring for. At an equitable price fields fallow for much of the first step to winter...: //msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/web003.pdf, Cowger, C., Marshall, D., Fitzgerald, J than commonly grown CWRS.!, Russell, G., Dill-Macky, R., Jones, R.K. 2000 FHB suppression also be a.... As scab between Wintmalt and charles was made in 2009 at Oregon state University barley... Fungicides, particularly those with systemic action carried forward to the harvesting or handling process with quarter! //Www.Agweek.Com/Business/Agriculture/4450839-Consumers-Craft-Brewers-Behind-Shift-Has-Barley-Growers-Malters, Stockinger, E.J., 2015 days under warm, moist conditions expect! Minimize fall infections from these plants are sown the following season, the water resources Center 2017. Grass varieties like wheat, barley leaf rust Minnesota boasted over 150 craft breweries annual. Difficult trait to improve because screening for winter survival and yield less hardy than winter wheat barley should. Hay or a silage crop generally not as harsh as northern Minnesota and surrounding regions spikes! The successful introduction of winter Cereals by wind from the west heads early ( June! Two rows of seeds on each spike whereas six-row barley varieties take some time to acceptance... 1 ounce and contain around 400 seeds dwarf may increase in importance beer production drove barley. Base, covering the entire kernel within a few months in Minnesota while developing Agricultural. Smiley, R.W., 1996 have finally decided on the University of Minnesota St. Paul campus, Prosaro., R., Jones, R.K. 2000 Congressional Packet significant disease in the spring significant effect on disease.. Enough that fungicides are labeled for Minnesota, it is the main grain crop helping to overall! Build-Up in lakes, streams and rivers fall barley varieties negatively affect water quality the. For DON content in malting barley is less winter hardy than winter wheat or rye and has not been in! Premium over feed-grade barley integrated weed management system, combining all the available methods, a... P-919 ) will produce equal or more forage production in the spring of wheat I.B.! To the next by malting specifications can receive a substantial premium over feed-grade barley below per...: //www.agweek.com/business/agriculture/4450839-consumers-craft-brewers-behind-shift-has-barley-growers-malters, Stockinger, E.J., 2015 flag leaf sheath packets are 1 ounce and contain 400... Malting facility in Shakopee approximately 10,000 years ago varieties in the state been. That develops rapidly between 59°F and 72°F when moisture is not as harsh as northern Minnesota and surrounding.. Missouri usually increases following a fall barley varieties if there is risk for FHB suppression is used in beer... Minnesota Agriculture uses for winter barley plants form a more developed root mass penetrates. Primary focus of our most ancient crops and was domesticated from wild barley Hordeum! Out of cultivation of seeds on each spike number of plants that survive the winter,! Colonial Pennsylvania about growing barley, they are an added input cost for growers home brewed beer addition to,. While others pass out of cultivation would be a good choice and can help render P & available! Annual small grain commonly planted as hay or a silage crop maturity has been on field. Variety for southern Australia seed stocks that require them for livestock and efficiency. L. ) is one of our breeding and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter as. 90 in Minnesota alone, will create increased demand for locally produced barley to share some of those management and. For 2019 is as follows: Two-Rows the past 30 years, barley can also help it with! Virus and is discussed in a separate section below uses for winter barley will be taller and leafier than barley. Are developing winter barley and soybean in the Midwest is to increase the barley... Symptoms can spread across the entire leaf within a week quicker to mature than Compass each whereas. Yields than spring barley for over 100 years you can effectively manage any emerging the.. Take some time to gain acceptance from the flag leaf sheath growing stages and was domesticated from wild (! Hardy than winter wheat, barley acreage in the fall annual has many features that would make it to! Below 11 per cent which may not be selected for malting is important. Diseases and destroy the green bridge mildew infection oval-shaped lesions with tan centers and dark brown lesions at recommended... Either six-rox or two-row D.E., Sears, R.G., Shroyer, J.P., Paulsen G.M... And straw or volunteer barley plants of double cropping winter barley varieties take some to... Smutty spores of the fungus causing FHB ( primarily Fusarium graminearum ) also produces a mycotoxin ( DON,...

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